BMD (Bone Mineral Density) Test Procedure and Result Explained

BMD (Bone Mineral Density) Test Procedure and Result Explained

Bone Mineral Density (BMD) Test measures the strength and density of bones, aiding in the diagnosis of osteoporosis and assessing the risk of fractures, enabling early intervention for better bone health.


BMD Test

Here are the basic details for the BMD Test.

Also Known As Bone Mineral Density Test
Type DXA (Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry)
Purpose Measures strength and density of bones
Preparation No Special Preparation Required
Fasting No
Gender All
Age-Group Any
Normal Value T-score within 1 SD (+1 or -1)
Reporting Time 2 - 4 Hours
Cost 800 - 1500 INR*

*Price range may vary as per location, lab type, and procedure of lab test.


BMD Test Full Form

The full form of BMD Test is Bone Mineral Density Test.


BMD Test Means

BMD Test stands for Bone Mineral Density Test.

  • It is a non-invasive procedure that measures the density and strength of bones.
  • The test helps in diagnosing osteoporosis, a condition characterized by low bone density.
  • It assesses the risk of fractures and evaluates the effectiveness of osteoporosis treatment.
  • BMD test results are usually reported as T-scores, comparing bone density to that of a healthy young adult.


BMD Test Purpose

Here is basic purpose of BMD Test.

  • Assess bone strength and density.
  • Diagnose osteoporosis and determine its severity.
  • Evaluate the risk of fractures.
  • Monitor the effectiveness of osteoporosis treatment.
  • Aid in developing personalized treatment plans for bone health.


BMD Test: Price, Normal Range, Result, Purpose, Meaning


BMD Test Preparation

Here is the basic BMD Test preparation patient should know.

Before Test

  • Inform the healthcare provider about any medications or supplements you are taking.
  • Wear comfortable clothing without any metal objects, such as zippers or buttons.
  • Avoid calcium supplements on the day of the test, as they may interfere with the results.

During Test

  • You may be asked to lie down on a table or stand while the scanning device measures your bone density.
  • Stay still and follow the instructions provided by the healthcare professional.
  • The test is painless and usually takes a few minutes to complete.

After Test

  • There are typically no specific restrictions or aftercare instructions.
  • Resume your regular activities as advised by the healthcare provider.
  • The results will be interpreted and discussed with you by your healthcare provider.


BMD Test Procedure

Here is basic BMD Test Procedure.

  • The patient lies down on a table or stands in an upright position.
  • A scanning device, such as a DXA (Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry) machine, is used to measure bone density.
  • The scanner emits low-dose X-rays that pass through the bones.
  • The machine captures the amount of X-ray radiation absorbed by the bones, providing a measurement of bone mineral density.
  • The test is typically performed on specific areas, such as the spine, hip, or forearm, to assess bone strength in those regions.


BMD Test Result

The BMD test result is usually reported as a T-score, which compares bone density to that of a healthy young adult.

  • A T-score of -1 and above is considered normal bone density.
  • T-scores between -1 and -2.5 indicate low bone density or osteopenia, while scores below -2.5 suggest osteoporosis.


BMD Test Report

BMD Test Report - Drlogy Test

BMD Test Report PDF


BMD Test Normal Report

BMD Test Normal Report Format Example Sample Template - Drlogy Pathology Lab Report Format

BMD Normal Test Report PDF Format

BMD Test Normal Result Report PDF


BMD Test Abnormal Report

Bmd Test Abnormal Report Format Example Sample Template - Drlogy Pathology Lab Report Format

BMD Abnormal Test Report PDF Format

BMD Test Abnormal Result Report PDF


BMD Test Normal Range

Here's the BMD Test Normal Range presented below.

T-Score Interpretation
-1 and above Normal bone density
-1 to -2.5 Low bone density (Osteopenia)
-2.5 and below Osteoporosis


BMD Test Interpretation

Here's an example of BMD Test Interpretation presented below.

T-Score Range Interpretation
-2.5 and below Severe osteoporosis
-1 to -2.5 Osteoporosis or osteopenia
-1 and above Normal bone density
+1 and above Above average bone density


BMD Test High Levels

Here are some potential causes of high BMD levels presented in the body.

Causes Description
Overuse of calcium supplements Excessive intake of calcium supplements.
Hyperparathyroidism Overactive parathyroid glands.
Paget's disease Excessive bone remodeling.
Immobilization Long-term bed rest or immobilization.
Bone tumors or cancer metastasis Abnormal growths affecting bone tissue.


BMD Test Low Levels

Here are some potential causes of low BMD levels presented in body.

Causes Description
Aging The natural decline in bone density with age.
Postmenopausal status Estrogen decline in women after menopause.
Vitamin D deficiency Inadequate levels of vitamin D in the body.
Sedentary lifestyle Lack of weight-bearing exercises.
Chronic medical conditions Conditions like rheumatoid arthritis or kidney disease.


BMD Test is Safe?

BMD test is generally considered safe and non-invasive.

  • The amount of radiation exposure during the test is minimal.
  • Pregnant women and individuals with metal implants should inform their healthcare provider before undergoing the test.


When Do You Get BMD Test Results?

BMD test results are typically available shortly after the test is conducted.

  • The exact timing can vary depending on the healthcare facility and its processes.
  • It is common to receive the results within a 2 - 4 hours.


BMD Test Limitation

Here are some possible limitations of the BMD Test.

  • BMD test results may vary based on the specific device used.
  • BMD test does not provide information about bone quality.
  • BMD test results can be influenced by factors like age, sex, and body size.


BMD Test Risk Factors

Here is the potential risk factor of the BMD Test.

  • Age and gender
  • Family history of osteoporosis or fractures
  • Smoking and excessive alcohol consumption
  • Lack of physical activity
  • Certain medical conditions and medications


Doctor Recommendations After BMD Test Result

Here are Doctor recommendations or consult a specialist after BMD Test.

BMD Test Results Doctor to Visit Reason
High Values Rheumatologist Possible osteoporosis or hyperparathyroidism
Normal Values Primary Care Physician General bone health assessment
Low Values Endocrinologist Possible osteoporosis or hormonal disorders


BMD Test Price

Here are the estimated BMD Test Price in India with top different cities:

City Price Range (INR)*
Mumbai 800 - 1500
New Delhi 900 - 1500
Bangalore 800 - 1500
Hyderabad 900 - 1500
Kolkata 900 - 1500
Pune 800 - 1500
Lucknow 900 - 1500
Noida 800 - 1500
Surat 900 - 1500
Gurugram 800 - 1500
Patna 900 - 1500
Chennai 800 - 1500
Jaipur 800 - 1500
Ahmedabad 900 - 1500

*Prices are approximate and vary depending on a specific laboratory or healthcare facility.



Overall, BMD Test is is a safe and non-invasive procedure that assesses bone density and helps in diagnosing conditions like osteoporosis. Also check Drlogy Test for detailed information about all medical tests for patients, doctors, scholers and medical students.



  • Bone Density - Wikipedia [1].
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel- NIH [2].



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When should I do my BMD test?

The timing for bone mineral density (BMD) testing depends on various factors, including your age, gender, medical history, and risk factors for osteoporosis. In general, it is recommended to discuss BMD testing with a healthcare professional if you are a postmenopausal woman, have a history of fractures, or have specific medical conditions or lifestyle factors that can affect bone health. Additionally, individuals on long-term medications known to impact bone density or those with other risk factors may also need BMD testing. Your healthcare professional can evaluate your individual circumstances and provide guidance on when to undergo BMD testing. It's important to remember that early detection of osteoporosis or low BMD can help initiate timely interventions and prevent further bone loss or fractures.

What are the signs of low BMD?

Low bone mineral density (BMD) is often referred to as osteopenia, the precursor to osteoporosis. In the early stages, osteopenia may not cause noticeable signs or symptoms. As BMD continues to decline, individuals may experience subtle signs such as loss of height over time, a stooped or hunched posture (kyphosis), or back pain. Fractures, especially in the spine, hip, or wrist, may occur with minimal trauma. However, it's important to note that these signs may not be exclusive to low BMD and can be associated with other conditions as well. If you have concerns about low BMD or osteoporosis, it's best to consult with a healthcare professional for evaluation and appropriate management. Early detection through bone density testing is crucial for timely interventions and preventing further bone loss or fractures.

How can I improve my BMD score?

There are several lifestyle measures you can take to help improve your BMD score and maintain healthy bones. Regular weight-bearing exercises like walking, jogging, or weightlifting can stimulate bone growth. Ensuring an adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D through a balanced diet or supplements is crucial for bone health. Additionally, avoiding excessive alcohol consumption and quitting smoking can help preserve bone density. Consulting with a healthcare professional is recommended to assess your specific needs and determine the best course of action.








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