Diabetes: Types, Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention

Diabetes: Types, Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention

What is Diabetes?

The human body converts all carbohydrates into glucose. Cells use glucose with the help of insulin to generate energy in the body. If cells find insufficient amounts of insulin in the blood, they cannot use glucose, which leads to an accumulation of glucose. This condition leads to diabetes.

 

Definition

"Diabetes is one kind of group of disease that appears in the human body that contains more glucose or sugar in the blood. Scientifically it is also known as diabetes mellitus."

 

It generally occurs when the human body cannot produce insulin or it produces an insufficient amount of insulin or a combination of both. Diabetes can also occur when cells do not respond to insulin properly.

 

Types of Diabetes

There are main 3 types of diabetes.

 

1. Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 is the first stage of a diabetic condition where the pancreas produces an insufficient amount of insulin in our body.

 

The pancreas is the organ of the anatomy that produces insulin in the body. Previously it had been brought up as insulin-dependent diabetes and is treated with insulin injections.

 

2. Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 is a stage of diabetes in which cells stop responding to insulin.

 

This can be also noted as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DM). It's because of heavy-weight and lack of exercise. Because of that Obesity has been linked to the development of insulin resistance and diabetes. Reduction in weight, diet and proper exercise are the remedies for this.

 

3. Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes will be seen in pregnant women.

 

This is often a condition when pregnant women with no previous history contain more sugar or glucose in their blood. It is generally fixed after the parturition of a baby.

 

Diabetes symptoms

  • Feels very tired
  • Lose weight without trying
  • Urinate (pee) a lot, often at night
  • Blurred vision
  • Have tingling hands or numb feet
  • Weakness or shaking
  • Moist skin & sweating
  • Fast heartbeat
  • Dizziness
  • Sudden hunger
  • Confusion
  • Pale skin
  • Numbness in mouth or tongue
  • Irritability & nervousness
  • Unsteadiness
  • Nightmares, bad dreams & restless sleep
  • Headaches & seizures

 

Tests for Type 1 Diabetes, Type 2 Diabetes & Prediabetes

 

1. A1C Test

The A1C test can measure your average blood sugar level over the past 2 to 3 months in your body.

 

If your A1C test is below 5.7% it will be considered normal, but if it'll be between 5.7 and 6.4% indicates you have prediabetes, and above 6.5% or higher indicates you have diabetes.

 

2. Fasting Blood Sugar Test

This test will measure your blood sugar after an overnight fast after not eating anything.

 

A fasting blood sugar level of 99 mg/dL or lower is considered normal, between 100 to 125 mg/dL indicates you have prediabetes, and above 126 mg/dL or higher indicates you have diabetes.

 

3. Glucose Tolerance Test

This measure shows your blood sugar before and after you drink a liquid that contains glucose.

 

You’ll fast overnight or don't eat anything before the test and have your blood drawn to determine you're fasting blood sugar level. Then you will drink the liquid and have your blood sugar level checked 1 hour, 2 hours, and possibly 3 hours after onwards.

 

At 2 hours, a blood sugar level of 140 mg/dL or lower is considered to be normal, 140 to 199 mg/dL indicates you have prediabetes, and 200 mg/dL or higher indicates you have diabetes.

 

4. Random Blood Sugar Test

This measures your blood sugar at a time when you’re tested.

 

You'll take this test at any time and don’t have to fast (not eat) first.

 

A blood sugar level of 200 mg/dL or higher indicates you’ve got diabetes.

 

Type of Test Normal
(mg/dL)
Prediabetes
(mg/dL)
Diabetes
(mg/dL)
Fasting Glucose Test < 100 100-125 126 +
Random Glucose Test < 140 140-199 200 +
A1c Test < 5.7% 5.7 - 6.4% 6.5% +
Oral Glucose < 140 140-199 200 +

 

Diabetic Diet plan & Diabetic Food for Diabetes

 

Diabetics patients must reduce their intake of sweets, fried foods, sugary beverages, and dessert foods that are fatty or salty.

 

A diabetic diet can help in controlling sugar levels in the blood.

 

Diabetes patients should follow a balanced and healthy diet.

The list of the following items can help.

  • Sugars should be totally avoided to the maximum extent.
  • Increase intake of fresh fruits and vegetables are taken instead of fruit juices etc.
  • Carbohydrates have a huge impact on blood sugar levels in the body. So, foods that are rich in carbohydrates should be avoided totally.
  • Also, Carbohydrates that are combined with fiber like brown rice, sweet potatoes, and leafy green vegetables can be taken.
  • Carbonated drinks like Soda, Pepsi, and many others like them should be totally avoided.
  • Fries and masala items are also to be reduced.
  • Natural fats are good for diabetes patients in opposite to that artificial fats can have a harmful effect on your body. Avocados, Fish, olive oil, tuna, and flaxseeds are rich sources of natural fats.
  • Go for healthy food habits choices when it comes to carbohydrates. Choose whole grain options like brown basmati rice, wholemeal bread or wholewheat pasta, etc.

 

Diabetes Prevention 

  • Eat a healthy diet.
  • Count calories in everything you eat.
  • Cutting 250 calories per day can help you lose a half pound per week.
  • Lower your stress.
  • Quit alcohol and smoking.
  • Learn relaxation techniques like yoga, mindful meditation, deep breathing exercises, and other helpful strategies
  • Try to practice daily physical exercises which can lower your weight and help in stress management.
  • Monitor your blood sugars closely.
  • Try to follow healthy food habits and diet, like the Dash or Mediterranean diet.
  • Don't skip nutritious consumption in your daily meals.
  • Try to do Exercise at least 30 minutes five days a week in regular time.
  • Lose weight if you are overweight.
  • Drink more water to be well-hydrated.
  • Take care of all of your medications for the treatment of any risk factors (like high cholesterol, high blood pressure, or heart-related problems) as prescribed by a doctor.
  • Visit your doctor regularly to monitor your diabetic health and to watch for complications in the future.
  • If you think you have symptoms of prediabetes, take all the tests and check your reports.
  • Take care of your diabetes medications (insulin levels or pills) as suggested by the doctor.
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FAQ

What is diabetes?

Diabetes is one kind of group of disease that appears in the human body which contains more glucose or sugar in the blood. Scientifically it is also known as diabetes mellitus.

What is the difference between type-1 and type-2 diabetes?

Main Difference between type-1 and type-2 diabetes

Features Type 1 Type 2
Frequency 10-20% 80-90%
Onset Sudden Gradual
Age All Adults
Prevalence Less More
Body habitus Thin/Normal Obese
Autoantibodies Present Absent
Ketoacidosis Common Rare

Who Monitors Diabetes?

Any person can do a blood sugar level check by doing a finger-prick test, or by using a flash glucose monitor or CGM an electronic blood sugar monitor.

Any person can measure blood sugar levels many times a day which can help you keep in check your sugar levels to help you to know work out plan, what to eat and how much medication to take.

How can i be Proactive with Diabetes?

Diabetes Management:

5 Tips to be Proactive and Healthy

  1. Monitor your blood sugars closely.
  2. Try to follow healthy food habits and diet.
  3. Lose weight if you are overweight.
  4. Drink more water to be well-hydrated.
  5. Visit your doctor regularly to monitor your diabetic health.
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