Brain Tumor: Symptoms, Signs, Types, Treatment & Risk Factors


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Brain Tumor: Symptoms, Signs, Types, Treatment & Risk Factors

What is Brain Tumor?


A collection or accumulation of abnormal cells in the brain is called a brain tumor. Brain tumors can be malignant (cancerous) or benign (non-cancerous).


These can cause brain damage as the pressure inside the brain increases because of the limited space inside the skull. These can cause complications like:

  • Loss of vision or hearing
  • Difficulty in maintaining the balance of body
  • Speech Problem
  • Strokes
  • Seizures


Brain Tumor Symptoms

Common symptoms of Brain Tumor include

  • Headaches in certain parts of the brain become unbearable with time
  • Nausea and vomiting without any reason
  • Vision problems like blurred vision or double vision
  • Loss of sensation or motor skills problems
  • Speech problems and difficulty in balance and dizziness
  • Confusion and difficulty in concentration
  • Seizures or strokes
  • Hearing problem
  • Difficulty with balance
  • Difficulty in making decisions
  • Speech difficulties
  • Personality and behavior changes
  • Feeling very tired


The symptoms of a brain tumor depend on the size and location of the tumor and the speed of growth.


15 Types Of Brain Tumors

Here are 15 types of Brain Tumors.

  1. Acoustic Neuroma
  2. Astrocytoma
  3. Brain Metastases
  4. Choroid Plexus Carcinoma
  5. Craniopharyngioma
  6. Embryonal tumors
  7. Ependymoma
  8. Glioblastoma
  9. Glioma
  10. Medulloblastoma
  11. Meningioma
  12. Oligodendroglioma
  13. Pediatric Brain tumors
  14. Pineoblastoma
  15. Pituitary Tumors


Brain Tumors Types in the Classical Way

Brain tumors are of two types in normal classification


Primary Brain Tumors

  • Primary brain tumors start to form in the brain which is mostly benign in nature and generally don’t spread to other parts of the brain.


Secondary Brain Tumors

  • Secondary brain tumors, also called metastatic brain tumors, are when the tumor spreads from one organ like lung or kidney to the brain.


Benign brain tumors grow slowly and don’t spread to different tissues and are possible to remove with surgery. Usually, they also don’t come back after removal.


Malignant brain tumors are more dangerous on the other hand. They grow rapidly and are cancerous in nature meaning they can spread to other parts of the brain or central nervous system too which can be life-threatening.



There may be many causes that can be the reason for brain tumors to occur.


Genes or Family History

Cancers are genetically inheritable or hereditary in nature meaning if you have had a family history of cancer, there are chances of a brain tumor or cause if the tumor already persists.


Exposure to Chemicals

Certain chemicals can increase the risk of getting cancer if exposed to them. These are generally at workplaces that involve chemicals.



People exposed to ionizing radiation have increased chances of getting brain cancer. Nuclear power plant incidents and nuclear bombing are examples. Radiation therapy to treat cancer may also be the cause.


Genetic Syndromes

There are a few rare and inherited (passed down from parent to child) genetic syndromes that are associated with brain tumors, including

  • Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1 Gene)
  • Neurofibromatosis Type 2 (NF2 Gene)
  • Turcot Syndrome (APC Gene)
  • Gorlin Syndrome (PTCH Gene)
  • Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC1 and TSC2 Genes)
  • Li-Fraumeni Syndrome (TP53 Gene)


Brain Activity

Many different types of primary brain tumors exist. Each gets its name from the type of cells involved. Like


Pituitary Adenomas

These are tumors that developed in the pituitary gland at the base of the brain & can affect the pituitary hormones with effects throughout the body.



Craniopharyngiomas are rare tumors that start near the brain's pituitary gland and control many body functions which can cause brain tumors.



Medulloblastomas cancerous brain tumors are most common in children and start in the lower back part of the brain and tend to spread through the spinal fluid.




  • Collecting and testing a sample of abnormal tissue also known as a biopsy. it can be used as part of an operation to remove the brain tumor.

Imaging Tests

  • MRI (Magnetic resonance imaging) is also used to help diagnose brain tumor diseases.
  • Sometimes imaging tests are used in certain situations, including Computerized Tomography (CT) & Positron Emission Tomography (PET).


Similar to symptoms, the criteria for treatment also depend on the size, location, and growth rate of the tumor.



  • If the location of the tumor is accessible, surgery can help remove a tumor or as much of the tumor as possible if the tumor is around sensitive areas.


Radiation therapy

  • Radiation therapy is used to terminate tumor cells with help of X-rays or protons.



  • Radiosurgery uses multiple weak beams of radiation that focus on a single point, at the brain tumor, to make a strong impact to kill the tumor cells.



  • Chemotherapy uses drugs, which and be taken orally or injected through the veins, to kill tumor cells.
  • Side effects may include vomiting and hair loss.


Rehabilitation Treatment

  • Rehabilitation after treatment is opted to help the parts that are affected because of the tumor that controls speech, vision, motor skills, and thinking.
  • Therapies like physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech therapy are advised by the doctor as a part of recovery.




  • Unfortunately, You can’t prevent a brain tumor, it occurs naturally.
  • But You can reduce your risk of developing a brain tumor by avoiding environmental hazards such as smoking and excessive radiation exposure.
  • If you have any first-degree biological relative like a sibling or parent who has been diagnosed with a brain tumor earlier, then share this information with your healthcare provider.
  • Doctors may recommend genetic counseling to see if you have an inherited genetic syndrome that’s associated with brain tumors.


Risk factors

Primary brain tumors don't have a clear cause of the tumor. But doctors have identified these 2 factors that may increase your risk of a brain tumor which include


1. Radiation Exposure

  • People who have been directly exposed to ionizing radiation have an increased risk of brain tumor.
  • Ionizing radiation includes radiation therapy used to treat cancer and radiation exposure caused by atomic bombs.


2. Family History

  • A small portion of brain tumors occurs with a family history of genetic syndromes that can increase the risk of brain tumors.


Not all brain tumors are cancerous, though — in fact, about two-thirds of them are benign. However, they can still cause problems for your brain. Still, early symptoms identification can help you to treat this disease well.

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