Kidney stone is hard deposits of minerals and chemical salts that vary in size and deposit in the kidney, ureters, or urinary bladder or painfully pass through the urinary tract in the urine (1).
The most common signs & symptoms are severe pain in the lower back, blood in your urine, nausea, vomiting, fever, and chills, or urine that smells bad or looks cloudy.
15 most common Causes that Increase the Risk of Kidney Stones include:
Not drinking enough water or dehydration can also contribute to the formation of kidney stones and urinary tract infections because both of which can lead to kidney damage.
When you have not drunk enough water then it leads to stone-forming crystals sticking together and forming a stone.
What you eat can play an important role in whether you get stones or are healthy.
The most common type of kidney stone formation happens when oxalate and calcium stick together.
Oxalate is a chemical that’s in many healthy vegetables and food. If you have an oxalate type of kidney stone then avoid oxalate-rich foods.
A list of Foods that are high in oxalates include:
Calcium is a mineral that’s in many healthy food & vegetables. If you have a Calcium type of kidney stone then avoid calcium-rich foods.
A list of Foods that are high in calcium include:
If you drink or eat calcium-rich foods and foods with oxalate at the same time then your body better handles the oxalate because the two tend to bind in the gut instead of in the kidneys where a stone can form.
Sodium from table salt can raise your chances of getting several types of kidney stones.
Animal protein raises your urine’s calcium level and lowers the amount of citrate, both of which encourage stones.
kidney Stones problem is most common in people with inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis, and chronic diarrhea because it affects calcium absorption.
The research found that almost twice as likely to get a kidney stone if you’re obese or if your BMI (Body Mass Index) is 30 or above.
Some weight loss surgeries cause malabsorption and this lead to an increased chance of kidney stone.
Kidney stones are common in both men and women however studies show that men are more likely to develop a kidney stone (1).
Research shows that 11 % of men compared to just 6 % of women will experience a kidney stone in their lifetime.
Kidney stones can affect people of all ages however likeliest to occur at age 30 or older, and your risk increases as you get older.
The study found that people are most likely to develop kidney stones between ages 40 and 60.
Research shows that 35 to 50 percent of people who have one kidney stone will develop further stones, usually within 10 years of the first stone.
Studies examined that higher sedentary time is associated with reduced kidney function and that leads to an increased risk of kidney stone formation.
Kidney stones are also more common in people who suffer from diabetes.
Insulin resistance from diabetes can raise the levels of calcium in your urine which can make kidney stones more likely.
When you have type 2 diabetes, high levels of insulin can make your urine more acidic that leading to the rising chance of kidney stones (2).
Your parathyroid glands can increase hormones level which leads to raises calcium levels in your blood and urine.
Gout develops when the body has high levels of uric acid in the blood and form crystals in the joints and the kidneys.
For people whose kidneys don’t filter waste properly well, the excess uric acid can crystalize in the kidney and form kidney stones.
The study found that high Blood Pressure people are at twice the risk to develop kidney stones as compared to normal people.
Patients who had gastric bypass surgery or other digestive surgery have more chances to develop kidney stones because its affects calcium and oxalate absorption.
Kidney stones develop more frequently in individuals who have a family history of kidney stones.
A person who has a previous history of kidney stones suffering also more change to further develop kidney stones.
Some genetic diseases responsible for kidney stones such as (3):
During pregnancy, ureteral compression, and ureteral relaxation due to elevated progesterone hormone can cause urinary stasis in the body.
Studies found that increased urine calcium excretion and elevated urine pH during pregnancy can lead to developing calcium phosphate stone formation (4).
The Kidney Stones differ in size, shape, and chemical compositions and it depends on the abnormalities in urine.
5 Types of kidney stones are as follows (5):
|Struvite Stone||10 - 15%|
|Urate Stone||8 - 10%|
Calcium stones (Calcium Oxalate and Calcium Phosphate) are predominant renal stones comprising about 80% of all urinary stones found in people.
The composition of calcium stones:
Many factors contribute to calcium oxalate (CaOx) stone formation such as:
The recurrence of calcium stones is greater than in other types of kidney stones.
Struviteor Magnesium Ammonium Phosphate Stones occur to the extent of 10–15%. It is also known as infection stones and triple phosphate stones.
This type of stone occurs among patients with chronic urinary tract infections with bacteria that produce urease.
This Common bacterial infection includes:
Women are more likely to develop struvite or magnesium ammonium phosphate type of stone than males.
These types of kidney stones are approximately 3–10% of all stone types.
The cause of uric acid stones includes:
Uric acid stones are more common in men than in women.
These types of kidney stones about less than 2% of all stone types.
Cystine Stones developed mostly because of genetic or autosomal recessive disorder caused by a defect in the rBAT gene on chromosome that leads to impaired renal tubular absorption of cystine or leaking cystine into the urine.
These types of kidney stones are about 1% of all stone types.
This type of stone formation because of some drugs such as
You can prevent or reduce the risk of kidney stones during pregnancy by following preventive tips:
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