Heart Attack: Symptoms, Causes, Risk, Recovery, Treatment and Prevention

Heart Attack: Symptoms, Causes, Risk, Recovery, Treatment and Prevention

What is Heart Attack ?

A heart attack occurs only when the flow of blood gets reduced and blocked.


The blockage happens due to excessive fat, cholesterol, and other chemical substances in the coronary heart arteries. The fatty and cholesterol-containing deposits are called plaques.

“A heart attack is also known as a myocardial infection.”

The process of developing plaques is called atherosclerosis. Somehow, a plaque can form a clot and rupture which blocks blood to flow. Lacking blood flow can also destroy and damage part of the heart muscles.



Heart Attack Symptoms Including :

  • Breathing problems or shortness of breath.
  • Indigestion problem or heartburn.
  • Suddenly having dizziness or lightheadedness.
  • The patient can have nausea symptoms.
  • Fatigue.
  • Cold sweat.
  • Having discomfort or pain in the arm, shoulders, jaw, neck, back & upper belly.
  • Having chest pain like aching, tightness, pain, and squeezing.
  • Angina is caused because it also decreases the flow of blood to the heart.
  • Somehow, the first reason for heart attack is leading to Cardiac arrest.
  • Some heart attacks are striking all of a sudden.
  • Some heart attacks have signs of warning and also have symptoms hours, weeks, days, or sometimes in advance.
  • Women may have some not typical types of symptoms such as sharp or brief felt pain in the arm, back, and neck.
  • Pain in the chest or pressure(Angina) that doesn’t go away and it keeps happening and also, having a rest may be an early warning sign.
  • Some people are having mild symptoms whereas, some people have severity in symptoms. Whereas, some other people also are having no symptoms.


Somehow, symptoms of a heart attack vary from one person to another, you can’t compare the situations with each other.



  • Coronary artery diseases are the main cause of heart attacks.
  • While in coronary disease one or more arteries are blocked in the heart(coronary). This is usually due to cholesterol-containing deposits, which are called plaques.
  • Plaques can narrow the gap in arteries so, it blocks the blood flow to the heart.
  • If a plaque breaks open, then it will cause a blood clot in the person’s heart.
  • Sometimes a heart attack is maybe caused by a complete or partial blockage of a heart meaning the coronary artery.
  • There are some ways to classify heart attacks rather as electrocardiogram means (ECG OR EKG) which shows some specific changes (ST elevation) that are required emergency invasive treatments.
  • The doctors and emergency workers use ECG results to describe some kinds of heart attacks:


A partial blockage

  • This kind of blockage occurs when people are having non-specific changes in myocardial infection(NSTEMI).
  • Moreover, some people have NSTEMI have a full blockage in the heart.


An acute complete blockage

  • This kind of blockage occurs in a large heart artery or medium one which means that he/she had specific changes in elevation myocardial infection(STEMI).


There are not all heart attacks are caused due to blockage in arteries. Some other aspects lead to:


Certain infections

  • People who had gone through COVID-19 detection or had any other kind of viral infections lead to damaged heart muscles.


Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD)

  • This kind of condition happens only if there is a muscle tear inside a patient’s heart artery. This is also known as a “life-threatening condition”.


Coronary artery spasm

This problem arises when there is a severity of squeezing a blood vessel that is not even blocked.


This artery has generally cholesterol plaques or it is an early hardening of the vessel due to smoking and some kind of other factors.


Other names for coronary artery spasms are:

  1. Variant Angina
  2. Prinzmetal’s Angina
  3. Vasospastic Angina




Tobacco use

  • This kind of condition is included smoking and having long-term exposure to second-handed smoke.
  • If you see a person smoking, then you should tell them not to smoke because it is injurious and also causes damage to a patient’s body.



  • A person having an extreme level of stress, emotional or any other kind related. 
  • Then, this could lead to many chances of a heart attack.


An autoimmune condition

  • A person having a condition of rheumatoid arthritis or lupus may have the risk of having a heart attack.


Illegal drug use

  • Cocaine, nicotine, and amphetamines are known as stimulants. 
  • They also trigger the coronary artery spasm which can lead to a heart attack.



  • Men who are having an age of 45 and are above that, women who are having an age of 55 and are above that are having factors of getting a risk of heart attack other than young men and women.


Not having enough exercises

Lacking not doing regular exercises (a sedentary lifestyle) can lead to complications of having a heart attack, whereas, doing regular excuses can help you to stay fit and stronger.


Not having a proper diet

  • A diet which is having a higher amount of increasing sugar levels, fats, processed food, salts, and trans fats can be getting a risk of a heart attack. 
  • Eating plenty of vegetables, fruits, pulses, and edible oils will lead a person to stay healthy and fit.


Having a history of preeclampsia

  • This is the condition that leads to cause in rising in higher blood pressure during pregnancy. 
  • It creates a lifetime problem of heart disease.


Family history

  • If in a patient’s family anyone has been through a heart attack previously, therefore, are many chances for young children to have in their future. 
  • Males who are above 55 and women who are above 65 have high chances of a heart attack.


Metabolic syndrome

  • It is a combination of three aspects such as high blood pressure, low good cholesterol and enlarged waist (central obesity), high blood sugar, and high triglycerides.
  • A person who is having metabolic syndrome than he/she can be having a heart attack problem in the future.


High cholesterol or having triglycerides

  • A high level of having a low density of lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol means the bad cholesterol is mostly having narrow arteries.
  • A higher level of certain blood cells which are called triglycerides also increases the risk of a heart attack.
  • If the lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol means the good cholesterol is in standardizing range.



  • Obesity is linked with diabetes, bad cholesterol, low levels of good cholesterol, high levels of triglycerides, high blood pressure, and bad cholesterol.


Having high blood pressure

  • Over a period of time, having high blood pressure can damage a person’s arteries which are leading to a heart attack.
  • High blood pressure that is occurring with other conditions such as high cholesterol and diabetes, and obesity can even increase the risk.



  • Blood sugar gets risen up when the patient’s body doesn’t produce a hormone called insulin.
  • A person having high blood sugar might be a risk of a heart attack.



Heart attack is occurred due to damage of the heart muscle. Some factors which are included in heart attack are:


Cardiac arrest

  • Without any kind of warning,the heart stops beating.
  • A sudden change in the heart function can be leading to heart attack.
  • The chances of heart attack is been risked of person having a life-threatening condition.
  • It can lead to death without immediately being treated.


Heart failure

  • A lot of damaged tissues can cause heart failure.
  • This kind of condition can be a temporary or long-term means chronic condition.


Cardiogenic shock

  • This condition occurs when a person’s heart is unable to pump blood.
  • Inflammation of the sac-like tissue surrounding the heart(pericarditis):
  • Somehow, a heart attack is triggered due to a faulty immune system response. 

This kind of condition is called Dressler syndrome, postcardiac injury syndrome, and postmyocardial infarction syndrome.


Not regular and not typical heart rhythms (arrhythmia)

  • A heart attack can also damage electrical signals and how they move through the heart,
  • It causes a change in the heartbeat. 
  • Some are deadly and whereas, and some may be serious.



It’s never that late if a person is taking after having a heart attack once. Here are some kind of options to prevent it:


Taking medicines as prescribed

  • A person’s doctor has provided any kind of medicines or drugs. 
  • Taking it in a proper schedule it helps to improve a patient’s health.


Following a healthier lifestyle

  • A person should not consume smoke, alcohol, hookah and etc.
  • Maintaining a healthy diet with regular exercise helps to stay person healthy & fit.


Managing other health conditions

  • Certain conditions such as diabetes and high blood pressure, can makes an increase in heart attacks. 
  • The patient should go to the doctor on a daily-to-daily basis for checkups and regular follow-ups.



  • It is always good to learn about medical techniques such as giving CPR to a patient which also helps to save their lives.
  • Taking a credibility course, which is including CPR and also learning to use automated external defibrillators (AED’s).


Heart attack treatment

  • A person he/she should immediately take help from doctors and how, if they are suffering from a heart attack. Some conditions include:


Take an aspirin, if a person is needing it

  • During patient suffering from a heart attack, taking aspirin may help to reduce heart damage by preventing blood clotting.
  • Aspirin can also interact with other drugs or painkillers.
  • A patient should not take aspirin unless and until the doctors prescribed them to take.


Calling for an emergency medical help 

  • If a person he/she is having a heart attack, then quickly dial 911 or an of your area’s local emergency numbers.
  • If a patient is not having access to an emergency medical number, then, try to take someone’s help to help them drive to the hospital.
  • A patient he/she should only drive if they are having no options.


Taking nitroglycerin, if prescribed by a doctor

  • Nitroglycerin extended capsules are used to prevent chest pain (angina) with a certain heart condition (coronary artery disease) in patients.



  • If you see someone having a heart attack and falling down with unconsciousness, they immediately call a doctor or dial 911 for emergency help. 
  • Then, the doctor guides do check the pulse rate and breathing condition of a patient.
  • If you see that a person is unable to breathe and also it is having no pulse, only then,you should try to give them CPR.


Q. If the person is untrained in CPR, what shall they do?
  • Only do hands pressure on the patient’s chest by giving CPR. 
  • This means giving a push hard and also doing it fast at about 100 to 120 compressions in a minute.


Q. If the person is trained in CPR, what shall they do?

Only do it confidently by giving pressure about giving 30 compressions before giving two rescue breaths to the patient.


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