Orthopedic and Its Common Types of Orthopedic Surgery Procedures

Orthopedic and Its Common Types of Orthopedic Surgery Procedures

Orthopedic Surgery

  • In today’s world, Modern Surgery has been developed to such an extent that technical skills and a body of knowledge, have been required for leading surgeons in such specialization of particular areas, which could be the anatomical areas of the body or occasionally in a type of patient or in such a particular technique.
  • Ortho is a word that is related to bones.
  • The word “Orthopedic” means surgeons who are dealing with bone surgeries.
  • Orthopedic or Orthopaedic surgeons deal with such types of surgeries, which are dealing with congenital and acute injuries and chronic arthritis, acquired disorders, and overuse conditions of the bones, joints, and their associated soft tissues, which including nerves, ligaments, and muscles.
  • Most of the consultants are working alongside general surgeons in emergency trauma, which are dealing with bony and soft tissue injuries, which are admitted through their A and E Departments.
  • There are vast majorities, who also, have a special interest in a particular orthopedic condition.



Orthopedic or Orthopaedic refers to the branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disorders and injuries of the musculoskeletal system.

These parts are included in Orthopedic:

  • Bones
  • Joints
  • Muscles
  • Tendons
  • Ligaments
  • Nerves

Orthopedic surgeons specialize in performing surgical procedures to correct these conditions.


Orthopedic Surgery History

  • In the 18th and 19th centuries, there was a resurgence of interest in orthopedics, with the development of new surgical techniques and the use of anesthesia.
  • In the 20th century, orthopedic surgery continued to advance, with the development of new technologies such as X-rays, CT scans, and MRI, which have greatly improved the ability to diagnose and treat musculoskeletal disorders.
  • orthopedic surgery is a highly specialized field that includes a wide range of procedures, from joint replacement surgery to spinal surgery to the treatment of sports injuries and congenital disorders.
  • With the help of advanced technology and techniques, orthopedic surgeons are able to provide patients with high-quality care and improved outcomes.


Orthopedic Surgery Types

Here are 10 Most Common Types of Orthopedic Surgery:

1. Total Joint Replacement (TJR):

  • Total joint replacement (TJR) surgery, is one of the most common elective surgeries.
  • During this surgery or arthroplasty, the doctor will be removing the worn-out surfaces of a damaged joint and will be using a prosthesis as a replacement for the replication of the functions of the healthy joint.
  • As such, People can do their daily routine activities, more quickly after total joint replacement.


2. Spinal Fusion:

  • During this surgery, the doctor will be fusing two or more vertebrae for correcting the problems with the spine.
  • This procedure is allowing the vertebrae for healing into a single and solid mass of a bone.
  • An orthopedic spine surgeon would be performing spinal fusion for some neck and back problems, which are including scoliosis and injuries to the intervertebral or vertebrae disks.


3. Fracture Repair Surgery:

  • An orthopedic surgeon would be performing fracture repair surgery for restoration of the normal anatomy of a severely broken bone.
  • For stabilizing the bone, they do use different types of implants, which are including screws, wires, rods, and plates.
  • While a fracture repair surgery is performed, it is much more common for a person to lose Muscle strength and Range of motion (ROM) in the injured part or area.
  • As and how, your doctor will be recommending you some specific exercises for the restoration of normal muscle strength, joint motion, and strength of their muscles.


4. Arthroscopic Surgery:

  • Arthroscopic surgery is an invasive procedure, which is using an arthroscope for diagnosis of the joint problems.
  • An arthroscopic is a long and thin camera, which is the size of a buttonhole, which an orthopedic surgeon would be inserted into a person’s joint, most commonly in the shoulder or knee.
  • The camera is been connected to a video monitor, which allows them to see inside the joints.
  • The Surgeon would use several small, thin instruments for fixing various problems by making minor additional incisions.
  • Arthroscopic surgery of the knee is one of the most common types of orthopedic surgery, that makes a place in the country.
  • An orthopedic will be performing arthroscopic surgery for repairing common joint injuries such as ACL tears, rotator cuff tears, and meniscus tears.
  • The time period a person will be taking to get recovered from this surgery would be around 1 week to many months.


5. Bone Grafting Surgery:

  • Orthopedic surgeons do perform bone grafting to augment bone regeneration when a person’s body cannot produce a new bone.
  • In this type of surgery, an orthopedic surgeon would be using bone from a patient’s body or from a donor for repairing and strengthening damaged or diseased bones.
  • While, they also, would be using synthetic bones substitute and biological factors.
  • This would be done when natural bone grafts are not available.


6. Knee Replacement Surgery:

  • As per the severity of the injury, a patient may be needing either partial or total knee replacement surgery.
  • Both are because of the cartilage damage of the knee joints, which does make movement painful and restricted.
  • This could be the result of trauma, bursitis due to obesity, and repetition in the movements.
  • When a patient is undergoing a knee replacement, the entire damaged knee joint is been removed and is been replaced with metal components.
  • During the partial knee replacement, there will be only the removal of the damaged portion of the knee will be replaced.


7. Spinal Surgery:

  • As we know, there are various types of back surgeries which are: Diskectomy, Laminectomy, Kyphoplasty, and Spinal Fusion.
  • About Spinal Fusion surgery, we had been discussing it above.
  • These all are critical surgeries.
  • As we earlier discussed, Spinal is the entire support of the skeletal system.
  • Medical science is so advanced in today’s world that, these surgeries can be performed with minimal invasion.


8. Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Reconstruction Surgery:

  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament is also known as ACL reconstruction surgery, and, it is one of the major ligaments of the person’s knee.
  • It has been located diagonally in front of the knees and it is providing stability when a person is rotating their legs.
  • During this type of surgery, the orthopedic surgeon will take a portion of the tendon from another part of the patient’s body, by using it as a graft, for the replacement if the torn ACL.
  • After operating this surgery, patients can go to their home on the same day and they should be following the RICE home-remedy method, which stands for Rest, Ice, Compression, and Elevation.
  •  If a patient is an athlete or a sports person, then, they need to have patience, as ACL surgery will be healing it by up to a year before they will be able to join their sports champions.


9. Hip Replacement Surgery:

  • The thigh bone which is known as the femur bone is connected to the hip bone which is also known as the pelvis by a ball and socket joint.
  • The top portion or the top part of the femur bone is known as the femoral head and it’s the “ball” portion.
  • The “socket” portion in the pelvis is known as the acetabulum.
  • When a person’s hips are healthier, then, everything would be fitting together along with the cartilage making the joint move so smoothly.
  • There have been two different types of hip replacement surgery, which are: The one is the traditional approach, the ball and socket joint is to be replaced either with a plastic or metal prosthesis; while, this is during the Birmingham Hip Resurfacing(BHR) approach, only, after this, the damaged part or portion is to be replaced, for making the surgery less invasive and for the requirement of the less recovery time.


10. Ankle Repair:

  • Ankle repair surgery is necessary only if the joint is not stable after the fracture.
  • Thus, the resultant that, bones are not been aligned properly.
  • During this surgery, the bones are been repositioning to their appropriate position and which are been held together with the implants.
  • After the Post Op means Post Operative, the patient needs to wear a cast or a boot for a period of some weeks.
  • After the ankle bone is getting healed, the patient is been allowed for weight bearing on their foot and they, need rehabilitation exercises done by their physiotherapists for Regaining full strength and Range of motion(ROM) so, that they can do their routine activities with ease.


1. What does Orthopaedic surgery mean?

  • Orthopedic surgery is a medical specialty that focuses on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of conditions and injuries in the musculoskeletal system. 
  • Orthopedic surgeons are doctors who specialize in the musculoskeletal system.


2. When should I see an orthopedic doctor?

  • The orthopedic doctor may be able to refer you to physical therapy or other specialists if needed.
  • You should see an orthopedic doctor if you have a problem with your bones, joints, muscles, tendons, ligaments, or nerves. This may include injuries, chronic pain, or degenerative conditions such as osteoarthritis. 


3. Is orthopedic surgery painful?

  • Orthopedic surgery can be associated with some degree of pain, but the level of pain can vary depending on the type of surgery, the individual's pain tolerance, and the use of pain management techniques. Pain can also depend on the location of the surgery.
  • The pain associated with orthopedic surgery is usually managed with a combination of medications, including over-the-counter and prescription painkillers, as well as local anesthetics and nerve blocks.


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