What is Zika Cirus: Symptoms, Causes, Treatment & Prevention

What is Zika Cirus: Symptoms, Causes, Treatment & Prevention

Zika virus is an airborne disease and mosquito-born disease which is spread by the Aedes mosquito, this is the same species that transmits the Chikungunya and Dengue virus.

 

Zika Virus Locations

The Zika virus was first identified in monkeys in Uganda in the year 1947, but it had affected the people living in Asia, Africa, Pacific Islands, South, and Central America.

The symptoms are very much mild, but if a pregnant woman gets infected by this virus then it would affect her pregnancy and her unborn child.

Unlike malaria-carrying mosquitoes. Aedes is the most active during the day. The methods to get protection such as nets and mosquito repellents are also not too effective. These mosquitoes can survive in outdoor and indoor areas.

 

Where is Zika Virus in US?

In the year 2016, an outbreak in Brazil raised awareness in international countries and all over the world, and cases of mosquito-borne disease were seen in the United States in Texas and Florida.

  • Several species of Aedes can also transmit Zika also known as the yellow fever mosquito.
  • In today’s life, there is no treatment for this virus.
  • Zika virus cases are occuring only in tropical season climate regions.
  • Symptoms of zika virus can lastbonly for a week, but for the foetus it can be a severe condition.
  • Avoiding mosquito bites can lead to preventing the zika virus case.

 

Zika Virus Symptoms

  • The incubatory period means the exposure of the time of the symptoms is about 3-14 period of days.
  • However, the major people who are affected by this virus, do not develop any symptoms.
  • Symptoms which occur are having only a mild effect such as: Having rash on the body, fever, malaise, having a mild headache, muscle and joint pain and conjunctivitis.
  • Therefore,these symptoms are seen only about 2-7 days.

 

Transmission

  • As we know, zika virus is caused by the bite of aedes mosquito which is mainly aedes agypti in subtropical and tropical regions mainly in Asia, Pacific Islands and Africa and etc.
  • Aedes mosquito bites at the peak time in the day, like somewhat in early morning or in late evening or afternoon.
  • As discussed before, that the fetus can also be infected by her mother through transfusion of blood and blood products, organ transplantation, pregnancy and sexual comtact.

 

Diagnosis

  • As and how, infections which are situated with zika virus are based on a person having symptoms, where they are residing or visiting areas with zika virus transmission, or having aedes mosquito vectors.
  • Diagnosing of zika virus transmission is based on laboratory tests blood tests and body fluids and it should be cross-reacted relative flaviviruses such as dengue viruses and to which the patient he/she has been exposed or getting vaccinated previously.

 

Complications

  • As we know, if zika virus is infected a pregnant lady during her pregnancy it causes microcephaly and other congenital developing deformities in the fetus and the newborns.
  • Zika infection has a disadvantage in pregnancy which is pregnancy complications, the stillbirth of the child, fetal loss, and preterm birth of the child.
  • Zika virus infection is also triggered the Guillain Barre syndrome, neuropathy, and myelitis which are seen in adults and older children.
  • Medical science and even doctors is having ongoing research for investigating Zika virus outcomes in pregnancy stratergeries in control and prevention and infection in neurological problems which are mostly seen in children and adults.

 

Treatment

  • As we know, there is no treatment available right now for zika virus disease
  • As we know, symptoms of zika virus are pretty much mild.
  • People having symptoms such as rash, arthralgia and fever should drink plenty of fluids, take proper rest, and also treat pain with medicines.
  • If symptoms are getting worst, then, they should take the doctor’s help and advice.
  • Pregnant women who are living in the areas where the Zika virus is spread and who are developing symptoms that people also should go for lab tests, diagnoses, and proper medical care with the help of doctors and their team.

 

Prevention

 

Prevention in Pregnancy

  • Zika virus can be spread from a mother to her fetus during pregnancy resulting in microcephaly. It means having a small size of head than the normal head size and other congenital malformations, which means a child would be having congenital zika syndrome.
  • Microcephaly is caused by underlying the brain's abnormal development and loss of brain tissues.
  • The child would be having outcomes that are related to brain damage.
  • Congenital zika syndrome will be having factors such as:
    • Having malformations such as having high muscle tone
    • loss of hearing
    • eye abnormalities
    • limb contractures.
  • As and how, the risk of congenital malformations having no known reasons during the infection in pregnancy, the percentage of children born to women during pregnancy have evidence of zika-related complications are around 5-15%.
  • Congenital malformations can occur in asymptomatic and symptomatic infections.

 

Sexual transmission of Zika virus

  • Zika virus can be spread through sexual intercourse.
  • A concern occurs between adversity of pregnancy of fetus and its adverse outcomes and zika virus infection.
  • Women who are having unprotected sex and do not want to get pregnant due to the zika virus infections,
  • should take a counselor’s help and get counseled and have emergency contraceptive services, and also should take help from their doctors.
  • Pregnant women should practice safer sex inclusive of the correct use of condoms and abstain from sexual activities for the entire duration of pregnancy.
  • In the foremost regions, with active transmission of the zika virus, all the people with the zika virus infection and their sexual partners including pregnant women should be having received all the information regarding zika virus infections.
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