Blood Disorders: Types, Definition, Symptoms and Treatment

Blood Disorders: Types, Definition, Symptoms and Treatment

Blood Disorders


"A blood cell disorder is a condition in which there is a problem with your red blood cells, white blood cells, or the smaller circulating cell called platelets, which are critical for clot formation."


All these three cell types form in bone marrow, which is the soft tissue inside your bone.

  1. Red blood cells transport oxygen to your body organs and tissues.
  2. White blood cells help your body fight against infection.
  3. Platelet helps your blood clot.


Blood cell disorder impairs the formation and function of one more of these types of blood cells.


Types of Blood Disorders


Blood disorders include bleeding platelet disorders, red blood cell disorder like anemia and white blood disorder.


Other blood disorders can cause chronic illnesses or life-threatening like sickle cell anemia, leukemia, and lymphoma.


Bleeding Disorders

  • Platelets help to control bleeding. Bleeding disorders are uncommon.
  • If you have a bleeding disorder you may have too much bleeding during or after surgery or injury.
  • The bleeding disorder can be acquired, or caused by medication or medical conditions.
  • Some are caused by our genes. Sometimes there is no known cause for a bleeding disorder.


Red Blood Cell Disorder

Red blood cell disorder transport oxygen through our body will stop you can develop a red blood cell disorder if a component of red blood cell is not working properly.


White Blood Cell Disorder

  • High blood cells is mainly produced in the bone marrow.
  • Unless you have an infection or blood disorder, you produce about 100 million white blood cells each day.
  • There are five types of white blood cells
  1. Basophils
  2. Eosinophils
  3. Lymphocytes
  4. Monocytes
  5. Neutrophils
  • White blood disorders involving abnormally low levels of white blood cells are called leukopenia.
  • If you have leukopenia, you are at increased risk of infections.
  • A white blood disorder involving abnormally high levels of white blood cells is called leucocytosis.


Blood Disorders List


A condition in which there is a deficiency of red blood or hemoglobin in the blood, resulting in pallor and weariness.


Polycythaemia Vera

  • It is a type of blood cancer. It causes your bone marrow to make too many red blood cells.
  • These excess cells take your blood, slowing its flow, which may cause serious problems such as blood clots.
  • Polycythaemia vera is rare.


Sickle cell disease (SCD)

  • It is a group of inherited red blood cell disorders.
  • Hemoglobin is a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body.
  • With SCD the hemoglobin forms into stiff rods within red blood cells.
  • These change the shape of red blood cells.



  • Thalassemia is the name of a group inherited condition that affects a hemoglobin substance found in the blood.
  • People with thalassemia produce either nil or too little hemoglobin, which is used by red blood cells to carry oxygen around the body.
  • This can make them very anemic tired short of breath and pale.




A common symptom of red blood cell disorder is

  • Fatigue
  • Shortness of breath
  • Trouble in concentrating from lack of oxygen blood in the brain
  • Muscle weakness
  • A fast heartbeat


A common symptom of white blood cell disorder is

  • Chronic infections
  • Fatigue
  • Weight loss
  • A general feeling of unwell


Common symptoms of platelet disorder are

  • Cuts or sores that don’t heal or are slow to heal
  • Blood that doesn’t clot after an injury or cut
  • Skin that bruises easily
  • Unexplained nose bleeding or bleeding from gums

There are many types of disease disorders that can generally affect your overall health.



  • Many blood diseases and disorders are caused by genes.
  • The other causes include other diseases, side effects of medicines, and lack of certain nutrients in your diet.
  • Common blood disorder includes anemia and bleeding disorders such as hemophilia.
  • Your blood's living tissue is made-up of liquid and solids.
  • The liquid part got plasma and is made up of salt water and protein. Over half of your body is plasma.
  • The solid part of your body contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.



Your treatment plan depends on the cause of your illness, your age, and your overall health status. Doctors may prescribe treatment to help correct your blood cell disorder.



  • Some pharmacotherapy option includes medications such as Nplate to stimulate the bone marrow to produce more platelets in platelet disorder.
  • For white blood cell disorders, antibiotics can fight infections.
  • Dietary supplements such as iron vitamin B9 or B12 can treat anemia due to deficiency.
  • Vitamin B9 is also called folate and vitamin B12 is also known as cobalamin.



  • A bone marrow transplant may repair or replace damaged marrow.
  • These involve transferring stem cells, usually from a donor to your body to help bone marrow begin producing normal blood cells.
  • Blood Transfusion is another option to help you replace lost or damaged blood cells.
  • During a blood transfusion, you receive an infusion of healthy blood from a donor.
  • Bone marrow donors must match or B as close as possible to your genetic profile.
  • Blood transfusion required a donor with a compatible blood type.


Early diagnosis and treatment are the best way to ensure that you live a healthy and full life with blood cell disorder.  Different side effects of treatment vary depending on the person. Research your options, and speak with your doctor to find the right treatment for you.

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