Cardiac surgery, also known as cardiovascular surgery or heart surgery, is a medical specialty that involves surgical procedures to treat conditions of the heart and blood vessels. Cardiac surgeons are trained to perform a wide range of procedures to diagnose and treat heart and blood vessel disorders, such as:
- Coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG): This procedure is done to bypass blocked or narrowed coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle.
- Heart valve surgery: This procedure is done to repair or replace heart valves that are not working properly.
- Cardiac catheterization: This procedure is done to diagnose and treat heart and blood vessel disorders by inserting a long, thin tube called a catheter into a blood vessel and threading it to the heart.
- Aortic surgery: this procedure is done to treat issues with the aorta, the main vessel that carries blood from the heart to the rest of the body.
- Heart transplant: This procedure is done when a person's heart is so damaged that it no longer works properly. A heart from a deceased donor is used to replace the patient's damaged heart.
- Minimally invasive cardiac surgery: These are new techniques that allow surgeons to perform the same procedures as traditional open-heart surgery with smaller incisions, which can result in less pain and faster recovery.
Cardiac surgery is a highly specialized field that requires extensive training and expertise. It is usually done when non-surgical treatments such as medication or lifestyle changes are not enough to treat the condition.